2021-11-30 update: (Saini 2011, PMCID: PMC3178961) Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient: “CoQ10 plays a significant role in boosting the immune system and physical performance…” – maybe
Ubiquinone (CoQ-10, CoQ10, MytoQ) might have strong prophylactic and/or therapeutic activity against COVID-19. People taking Ubiquinone were found to have 5.7x lower rates of hospitalization with COVID-19 in Israel. The sample was small, though, and the methodology did not allow to check for confounding medications.
(Israel et al., 2021) is a recently published reverse observational study. It attempted to detect users of which drugs (among those that are available Israel) are not getting hospitalized with COVID-19. The cohort of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 was matched with a larger cohort from the general population. Average age was 65 in each cohort.
Surprisingly, nutritional supplement Ubiquinone came on top. People taking Ubiquinone had 5.7x lower rates of hospitalization with COVID-19. The downside of it is a small sample size – only 6 individuals taking Ubiquinone were hospitalized with COVID-19. (Israel et al., 2021) also provided an explanation:
“It is remarkable that these three drugs [Rosuvastatin, Ezetimibe, and Ubiquinone] act on the cholesterol and ubiquinone synthesis pathways, which both stem from the mevalonate pathway”
There is very little literature about Ubiquinone and COVID-19. Only one trial (Aarhus University Hospital, 2021) Coenzyme Q10 as Treatment for Long Term COVID-19 (QVID) could be identified. Theis not much literature on the topic and it suggests also other possible mechanisms of action. It is listed here without comments.
(Ouyang and Gong, 2020) Mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone: A potential treatment for COVID-19
“Mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, shows beneficial effects on various diseases through improving mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that MitoQ could act as a potential treatment in COVID-19. MitoQ may alleviate cytokine storm and restore the function of exhausted T cells in COVID-19 patients through improving mitochondrial dysfunction.”
(Mantle et al., 2021) Coenzyme Q10 and Immune Function: An Overview
(Polymeropoulos, 2020) A Potential Role of Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency in Severe SARS-CoV2 Infection
(Gvozdjakova et al., 2020) Is mitochondrial bioenergetics and coenzyme Q10 the target of a virus causing COVID-19?
(Hargreaves and Mantle, 2021) COVID-19, Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium
Ubiquinone in the context of COVID-19 is also mentioned in (Wood et al., 2021) and (Pagano et al., 2021).
Aarhus University Hospital, 2021. Coenzyme Q10 as Treatment for Long Term COVID-19 (Clinical trial registration No. NCT04960215). clinicaltrials.gov.
Gvozdjakova, A., Klauco, F., Kucharska, J., Sumbalova, Z., 2020. Is mitochondrial bioenergetics and coenzyme Q10 the target of a virus causing COVID-19. Bratisl. Lek. Listy 121, 775–778. https://doi.org/10.4149/bll_2020_126
Hargreaves, I.R., Mantle, D., 2021. COVID-19, Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium, in: Guest, P.C. (Ed.), Identification of Biomarkers, New Treatments, and Vaccines for COVID-19, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 161–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-71697-4_13
Israel, A., Schäffer, A.A., Cicurel, A., Cheng, K., Sinha, S., Schiff, E., Feldhamer, I., Tal, A., Lavie, G., Ruppin, E., 2021. Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19 – a case-control study in a large population. eLife 10, e68165. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.68165
Mantle, D., Heaton, R.A., Hargreaves, I.P., 2021. Coenzyme Q10 and Immune Function: An Overview. Antioxidants 10, 759. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050759
Ouyang, L., Gong, J., 2020. Mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone: A potential treatment for COVID-19. Med. Hypotheses 144, 110161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110161
Pagano, G., Manfredi, C., Pallardó, F.V., Lyakhovich, A., Tiano, L., Trifuoggi, M., 2021. Potential roles of mitochondrial cofactors in the adjuvant mitigation of proinflammatory acute infections, as in the case of sepsis and COVID-19 pneumonia. Inflamm. Res. 70, 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01423-0
Polymeropoulos, V., 2020. A Potential Role of Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency in Severe SARS-CoV2 Infection. OBM Integr. Complement. Med. 5, 1–1. https://doi.org/10.21926/obm.icm.2004042
Wood, E., Hall, K.H., Tate, W., 2021. Role of mitochondria, oxidative stress and the response to antioxidants in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: A possible approach to SARS-CoV-2 ‘long-haulers’? Chronic Dis. Transl. Med. 7, 14–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2020.11.002